Thyroid Gland Diseases and Treatment
It is a butterfly-shaped orchid that is placed on the breath tube and produces hormones.
The thyroid gland has more vessels than most tissues of the body and allows secretion of
hormones that regulate metabolism in the body.
How can I tell if the thyroid gland is working?
The best information about the functions of the thyroid gland is the TSH hormone secreted
from the brain’s pituitary section. This substance stimulates hormone secretions in the
thyroid gland, allowing more hormones to be produced and given to the blood. When the
thyroid gland is running low, the pituitary TSH is given to the blood.
If the thyroid starts to produce more hormones by itself, then the pituitary reduces the
production of TSH and the measured TSH measurement shows below normal limits. The
measurement of free T4 (FT4) and free T3 (FT3) hormones as well as TSH provide
information about thyroid function in some cases and are requested by your physician in the
What if the thyroid gland runs low?
This gland is called hypothyroidism because it requires little work and the amount of thyroid
hormone needed for body tissues cannot be secreted. In this case, the level of the thyroid
hormones is low and the hormones do not reach the tissues in sufficient amount.
Body functions slow, the patient starts to get colder, becomes tired quickly, and symptoms
like weight gain, hair loss, dry skin, constipation, forgetfulness arise.
Hypothyroidism is most often caused by inflammation of the thyroid gland called
autoimmune thyroiditis, surgery of the thyroid gland due to cancer or other causes, or
radioactive iodine (atom) treatment, which occurs when the body’s immune system wounds
its own tissues.
What if the thyroid gland works too hard?
Symptoms include weight loss without heart rate acceleration, palpitations, trembling in
hands, damp skin, irritability, restlessness and loss of appetite.
In the case of Basedow-Graves disease, one of the most common causes of
hyperthyroidism, these findings and symptoms, as well as the eyelids that are too open,
cause the eyes to look too big and go out.
Apart from Basedow-Graves disease, toxic (toxic) nodular goiter (thyroid with one or more
lumps) and thyroiditis are among the causes of hyperthyroidism. The treatment of this
condition can be done in 3 ways:
Destroying the effects of over-secreted thyroid hormones with oral medications.
Radioactive iodine (atom) therapy is used to destroy the overactive thyroid tissue and to
decrease the amount of secreted hormones.
The removal of the entire thyroid gland by surgery.
What is Laparoscopic Surgery?
Nowadays, in every surgical branch, some operations can be done by laparoscopic or closed
The general surgery branch is more fortunate in laparoscopic surgery than in other
branches. Because general surgery involves a lot of operations that can be performed in
different parts of the human body.
From the first closed surgery, bile duct, appendicitis and reflux operations were performed in
the general surgery department. It has been widely used in laparoscopic general surgery
since about 30 years.
The basic philosophy is to operate with several small holes and special hand tools. The most
important advantage of high tech, fiber optic imaging methods and laparoscopic operations
using hand tools in pencil thickness is that they cause less pain and shorten the length of
Is Every Patient Eligible for Laparoscopic Surgery?
Laparoscopic surgery in patients who have undergone multiple abdominal surgeries can
cause too much damage. Similarly, laparoscopic surgery for bowel obstruction and some
hematological diseases (blood disorders) can be harmful to the health of the patient.
The most common surgery among all abdominal surgical interventions is the appendectomy.
The incidence of appendicitis in the community is 7%. Approximately every 15 people have
appendicitis in a period of their life. Appendicitis, which is more common in children than
adults, is the most common age 6-12. Appendicitis is a familial feature.
The occlusion of the appendix lumen (space in the organ) for any reason is the cause of
inflammation of this organ.
Stool stones, parasites, foreign bodies, lymphoid hyperplasia and carcinoid tumors are the
causes of luminal obstruction in all age groups. In children, lumen is more often blocked by
lymphoid hyperplasia during systemic infections. Stool stones are the second most
important cause. Blockage of the appendix lumen causes secretion secreted by the mucous
membranes in the lumen and causes the intraluminal pressure to increase within a few
hours to disrupt the circulation of the appendicle wall. At the beginning of the illness, the
heavy hours around the belly move to the lower right side of the abdomen. Almost every
case is accompanied by nausea and vomiting. Lack of appetite in these cases is a precious
Stomach Hip and Laparoscopic Stomach Hip Surgery
Hiatal hernia (gastric hernia) has been known for many years, but has been on the agenda
again in recent years due to its relationship with gastro esophageal reflux disease. Often,
the patient does not cause a certain complaint and is usually diagnosed incidentally.
According to radiological studies, the incidence of hiatal hernia increases with age. Unda (3-
20%) is seen. Almost half of the people over 60 years old have hiatal hernia, which can be of
varying degrees. Only about a quarter of adults with hiatal hernia complain of burning
sensation in the stomach or gastric contents reflux (gastro esophageal reflux).
In the muscle structure called the diaphragm and in the form of a dome, our lungs are
separated from the abdominal region. When people breathe deeply, the diaphragm becomes
stiff and flat. By doing this, the lungs are filled with air. A small opening on the left side of
the diaphragm (hiatus? Slit) allows the food tube to come from the chest cavity to reach the
abdominal cavity and join with the stomach. This openness, which is called Hiatus, envelops
the small-town and food borough. The stomach is under the diaphragm.
What are the causes of Hiatal Hernias?
In some people, the muscle and connective tissue that make up this gap, which the food
pipe passes through on the diaphragm, is weak and is allowed to expand. When the cleft
reaches a sufficient width, a part of the cleft goes up to the diaphragm. Acceptable risk
factors include obesity, excessively heavy lifting exercises, and withdrawal. For whatever
reason, part of the result is enlarged and weakened hiatus grows up to the rib cage, thus
forming the hiatus hernia (stomach hernia).
What are the symptoms of Hiatal Hernin?
Hiatal hernia usually does not give a symptom. Especially when lying or forward bending and
stomach contents escape back into the food tube, they come into contact with the mouths
of the custodial customers or with the sense of burning and sourness felt behind the
breastbone (see gastro esophageal reflux disease). More rarely, there may be vomiting after
squeezing. In some patients, nighttime coughing, shortness of breath, and asthma-like
breathing problems can occur. Prolonged acid reflux can lead to erosions and bleeding in the
food pipe. As a result, symptoms such as fatigue and fatigue due to anemia of iron
deficiency may occur in patients. After prolonged and untreated reflux disease, constriction
(peptic stricture) at the lower end of the food canal and accompanying swallowing difficulty
may develop. Hiatal hernias do not cause abdominal pain and indigestion. Rarely, in patients
with large hiatal hernia, symptoms such as pain, back pain, or palpitation may develop in
the back of the breastbone.
Treatment of Hiatal hernia usually starts when the symptoms of the illness come out. Since
the anatomical structure is impaired, there is no medical treatment (drug treatment) to
completely correct this disease. It is advisable not to raise the bedhead, to eat at least 3-4
hours before bedtime, and to use drugs that suppress gastric acid secretion (see
Gastroesophagial reflux disease treatment). Consumption of cigarettes, alcohol, greasy
foods, excessive coffee and dark tea should be terminated and extra kilos should be given. It
may be beneficial not to choose the types of exercises that increase nutrition and intra-
abdominal pressure at low and frequent intervals. Attaching a tight belt or corset facilitates
the appearance of symptoms.
Hiatal hernide is the definitive and permanent treatment of the surgical cure. The surgically
treated loosened and enlarged diaphragm is shrunk by suturing, and at the same time a shape
similar to that of the ink jug is given (Nissen fundoplication). Nowadays, laparoscopic surgery is
preferred in many centers. Surgical treatment should be performed at well-assessed and
indications that surgical treatment is indeed necessary. Otherwise, the patient may be disturbed
after the operation and side effects may occur which may be disturbing the preoperative period.
Therefore, surgical treatment should be applied only after the necessary examinations have
been performed on the hiatal hernias, which do not respond to the medication. The frequency of
hiatal hernia increases with age with respect to radiological studies. Unda (3-20%) is seen.
Almost half of the people over 60 years old have hiatal hernia, which can be of varying degrees.
Only about a quarter of adults with hiatal hernia complain of burning sensation in the stomach or
gastric contents reflux (gastro esophageal reflux). In the muscle structure called the diaphragm
and in the form of a dome, our lungs are separated from the abdominal region. When people
breathe deeply, the diaphragm becomes stiff and flat. By doing this, the lungs are filled with air.
A small opening on the left side of the diaphragm (hiatus). Slit allows the food tube to come from
the chest cavity to reach the abdominal cavity and join with the stomach. This openness, which
is called Hiatus, envelops the small-town and food borough. The stomach is under the